We were all new once.
Some of us more recently than others. For instance, I got started back in Shadowmoor. While that may sound like olden times to some of you, to others it will be the new days since you've been playing since cards had white borders and all that.
The point is, we've all been there. And we've all needed a few places to start as we moved from the kitchen table to the competitive scene, even if that scene is just the LGS for Friday Night Magic. And there's definitely a lot of great content to get you started. Magic is a game full of writers and full of great articles to get you going.
Of course, finding that information when you're new isn't exactly easy, since it's spread out across a ton of sites and years.
Reddit user /u/basic_forest has you covered. He's assembled a great list of required reading, from "Who's the Beatdown" to newer articles to get you going.
Seriously, this is an impressive list. Don't believe me? Check it out for yourself.